Neuro-linguistic programming (or NLP) is a controversial interpersonal communication model applied in psychotherapy and other contexts of communication and change. It was initially co-created by Richard Bandler and linguist John Grinder in the 1970s based on the communication and behavioral patterns acquired from gestalt therapist Fritz Perls, family systems therapist Virginia Satir and psychiatrist Milton H. Erickson. The originators emphasize modeling of excellence as the core methodology of NLP, that is, the methods they used to imitate and produce the models of exceptional communicators. They also claim that the basic assumptions of NLP draw from aspects of neurology (“neuro-“), transformational grammar (“linguistics”) and cybernetics (“programming”). It has often been promoted as an art and science of effective communication and defined as ‘the study of the structure of subjective experience’. Others put more emphasis on the tools, techniques and applications specific to contexts such as psychotherapy, business management and communications training, motivational seminars, personal development, and teaching.